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Geography of Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan is one of the most mountainous countries in the world about 93% of its territory lies at altitudes above 1000 m above sea level, and the average height is 2750 m. The country is like a fork of the two largest mountain systems, reaching its maximum height (Pobeda Peak, 7439 m) in the vast Tien-Shan mountain site in the eastern part of the country, bordering China and Kazakhstan.

Through the entire northern part of the country, in the latitudinal direction, stretches nearly 600 km chain of mountain ranges of Ala-Toos or Alataus that in Kyrgyz mean colorful mountains Terskey-Ala-Too (4808 m), Kyungey-Ala-Too (4770 m), the Kirghiz ridge (Kyrgyz Alatau , 4855 m), Talas Alatau (4,251 m), Suusamyr-Too (3828 m), Karakolsky ridge (4273 m) and others. They form the northern mountainous frontier of the country, dividing the territory of Kyrgyzstan from the arid deserts and Moyynkum Saryesik-Atyrau. The southern part of the country form a powerful ridges Chon-Alai (Trance-Alay) mountain system, which is the second highest peak in Kyrgyzstan Lenin Peak (7134 m), and the border with China back Kakshaal-Too.

The central part of Kyrgyzstan formed ridges and spurs of the grand mountains of Tien Shan (Celestial Mountains) Jeti (4896 m), Moldo-Too (4099 m), At-Bashy (4786 m), Borkoldoy, Chatkal (4503 m) and Alai (5259 m) mountain ranges, stretching from west to east over 2400 km (continuing on the territory of China , Tajikistan and Uzbekistan ). Moreover, from the main axis of the Tien Shan to the north and south moves a lot of high ridges (Suusamyr-Too 3828 m, Ferghana 4692 m, etc.) and arrays (Ak-Shiyrak, etc.), forming a powerful mountain sites. Between the ridges are large tectonic depressions Susamyr, Srednenarynskoy, Turfan, Hamiyskoy, Ili, Chu, Toktogul and Talas basins, and Lake Issyk-Kul, Chater-Kul, Son-Kul, etc.

In the eastern part of Central Tien-Shan Mountains, within the vast mountain site, clearly expressed in two converging bands of mountain ridges, separated by a sequence of valleys and basins, elongated in the latitudinal direction. In the composition range Kakshaal-Too rises the highest point in the whole range Peak Pobeda (7439 m). And nearby, in the ridge Tengri-Tag, is another seventhousander Mount Khan-Tengri (Lord of Heaven , 7010 m), considered a symbol and a business card of the Tien Shan. The lowest point of the country lies on the banks of the river Kara (Kara-Darya 132 m), thus differences in elevation in the territory of Kyrgyzstan reaches 7300 m.

Mountain areas are covered with a powerful glaciation there are about 8000 glaciers with a total area of more than 8100 km (4% of the territory), ranging from the dizzying heights up to 2900 m above sea level. The largest glacier country Inylchek (Enilchek, North and South), which together with the adjacent ice fields reach an area of 800 square meters. km. For the highlands is characterized by glacial landforms (cirques, ditches, troughs, etc.), the slopes of ravines are covered with numerous dunes, and the bed of the valleys thick moraine deposits of the glaciers. Wide-spread high-altitude permafrost, which covers the slopes and the bed almost 60% of the high mountain valleys. Also, frequent small alpine lakes and even swampy areas. From the mountains runs more than 12000 rivers and streams that feed as many lakes and rivers of Naryn, Talas , Ili, Chu, and Aksu.

A characteristic feature of the local landscape is the alternation of high mountains and deep intermontane basins, forming a labyrinth. The vegetation in the piedmont plains are mostly desert and semi-desert, in the mountains mountain steppes and forests, alpine meadows and meadow-steppe. Moreover, in the territory of Kyrgyzstan practically all natural zones of northern hemisphere of the planet can be found here and thick mountain forests and arid steppes, deserts, including alpine and tundra, floodplain meadows and mountain valley swamps (saz), all of which are often removed from each other at a distance of no more than a couple-three hundred meters. Flora of the countrys population of about 4200 species of higher plants, and fauna - some 500 species of vertebrates, of which 86 mammals, more than 50 species of fish and about 360 birds. For agriculture, suitable only 7,3% of the republic.


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